Worldwide prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes among singleton pregnancies after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a systematic review and meta-analysis
The worldwide prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) in singleton pregnancies after in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is suggested to vary; however, a complete overview is missing. The aim of this review is to estimate the worldwide prevalence of APOs associated with IVF/ICSI singleton pregnancies.
PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Libraries, and Chinese databases were searched for studies assessing APOs among IVF/ICSI singleton births through March 2016. The prevalence estimates were summarized and analyzed by meta-analysis.
Fifty-two cohort studies, with 181,741 IVF/ICSI singleton births and 4,636,508 spontaneously conceived singleton births, were selected for analysis. Among IVF/ICSI singleton pregnancies, pooled estimates were 10.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.0-11.8] for preterm birth, 2.4% (95% CI 1.9-3.0) for very preterm birth, 8.7% (95% CI 7.4-10.2) for low birth weight, 2.0% (95% CI 1.5-2.6) for very low birth weight, 7.1% (95% CI 5.5-9.2) for small for gestational age, 1.1% (95% CI 0.9-1.3) for perinatal mortality, and 5.7% (95% CI 4.7-6.9) for congenital malformations. The IVF/ICSI singleton pregnancies have higher prevalence of APOs compared with those conceived naturally (all P = 0.000). Significant differences in different continents, countries, income groups, and type of assisted conception were found.
The IVF/ICSI singleton pregnancies are at a higher prevalence of adverse perinatal outcomes compared with those conceived naturally. Important geographical differences were found. Yet, population-wide prospective APO registries covering the entire world population for IVF/ICSI pregnancies are needed to determine the exact perinatal prevalence.