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    Types of forced labour in 2024

    Forced labour, as set out in the ILO Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No.29), refers to “all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily.” Forced labour does not depend on the type or sector of work, but […] More

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    Forced marriage in 2024

    Forced marriage is a complex and highly gendered practice. Although men and boys are also forced to marry, it predominantly affects women and girls. Forced marriages occur in every region of the world and cut across ethnic, cultural, and religious lines. The many drivers of forced marriage are closely linked to longstanding patriarchal attitudes and […] More

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    Forced Labour in 2024

    Modern slavery, as defined for the purpose of the global estimates, is comprised of two principal components – forced labour and forced marriage. Both refer to situations of exploitation that a person cannot refuse or cannot leave because of threats, violence, deception, abuse of power or other forms of coercion.The scourge of modern slavery has […] More

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    Forced commercial sexual exploitation in 2024

    This sub-section refers to persons in forced labour imposed by private actors for commercial sexual exploitation. This category of forced labour includes adults’forced involvement in commercial sexual exploitation, in production of sexual abuse materials, and in new forms of Internet-based commercial sexual exploitation. It also includes all forms of commercial sexual exploitation involving children.The 2021 […] More

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    Debt bondage in the forced labour in 2024

    Debt bondage results when people are coerced to work against their will to repay a debt with an employer or recruiter, or when debt is manipulated to compel people to perform work tasks or accept work conditions that they would otherwise refuse. Such debts can last years or even generations. They can be manipulated in […] More

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    Involuntariness and coercion in the forced labour in 2024

    Forced labour involves work situations featuring two key, interrelated conditions. The first is a lack of free and informed consent (i.e., involuntariness) in taking the job or accepting the working conditions. The second is the application of some form of coercion, such as a penalty or threat of a penalty, to prevent an individual from […] More

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