Italy TIER Ranking: TIER 2 (TIP 2023)

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The Government of Italy does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so.  The government demonstrated overall increasing efforts compared with the previous reporting period, considering the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, if any, on its anti-trafficking capacity; therefore Italy remained on Tier 2.  These efforts included identifying more trafficking victims, including the first ever Italian national victims of enslavement; increasing funding for NGOs providing services to trafficking victims; and adopting a NAP.  However, the government did not meet the minimum standards in several key areas.  The government conducted fewer trafficking investigations under the three articles of the penal code associated with severe sex and labor trafficking crimes, prosecuted fewer suspects, and convicted fewer traffickers under those penal code articles.  Gaps in victim identification systems persisted; the government identified very few children, despite high estimates by civil society of trafficking among children.  The government did not report compensation or restitution to any victims.

The Government of Italy should :

  • Vigorously investigate and prosecute trafficking cases and convict and seek adequate penalties for convicted traffickers, which should involve significant prison terms.  
  • Increase proactive victim identification by improving and consistently implementing the NRM across the country, including for Italian nationals and vulnerable populations such as foreign migrants and children.  
  • Continue efforts to screen for labor trafficking through inspections and training of labor inspectors to spot trafficking indicators and refer victim to services.  
  • Given significant concerns about forced labor indicators in Cuban international work programs, screen Cuban overseas workers, including medical professionals, and refer them to appropriate services.  
  • Strengthen interagency coordination and partnership with civil society.  
  • Continue to increase migrant worker protections by consistently enforcing strong regulations and oversight of labor recruitment agencies and labor brokers, including investigating and prosecuting for labor trafficking.  
  • Ensure labor trafficking is investigated and prosecuted as a trafficking offense and not pursued as an administrative labor code violation or other lesser crime.  
  • Consolidate data among different ministries, and make public a database on investigations, prosecutions, and convictions, including sentencing data.  
  • Implement a licensing and accreditation process for massage parlors and increase oversight.  
  • Increase awareness of, and trafficking survivor access to, compensation and increase prosecutors’ efforts to systematically request restitution for survivors during criminal trials.  
  • Continue to increase international cooperation with source and transit countries on information sharing and countering human trafficking.  
  • Improve security standards in and around reception centers to limit contact between traffickers and victims or potential victims.  
  • Continue screening migrants and asylum-seekers aboard rescue vessels docked in Italian ports for indictors of trafficking, referring identified victims to services, and working with international organizations to protect potential trafficking victims from refoulement.  
  • Continue to ensure funding and in-kind contributions to foreign governments’ operations to address irregular migration are not used to support criminal activities, including human trafficking.  
  • Continue to strengthen international law enforcement cooperation to prevent and investigate child sex tourism.  
  • Ensure victims are not inappropriately penalized solely for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked.  
  • Appoint a national rapporteur to provide an independent review of government efforts.  
  • Increase survivor engagement, including by establishing accessible mechanisms for receiving and providing compensation for survivor input when forming policies, programs, and trainings.  
  • Increase efforts to pursue financial crime investigations in tandem with human trafficking cases.

from 2023 Trafficking in Persons Report – U.S. Department of State

2023 Trafficking in Persons Report – United States Department of State

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